[Running prototype, covered by patent application]

 

 

Gravity Motor and Ether mechanics

 

Why Ether?

There are two different sections in the present Physics named as Fluid Mechanics and Electrodynamics. However, present Physics do not consider any link between them. We consider that a fluid “Ether” is present in the whole universe similar to liquid form of fluid and it is strongly related to electrodynamics.

The purpose of considering ether is that we have better understanding of unexplained questions in physics. It also opens new possibilities of generating thrust in space without using reaction mass by taking reaction from ether as achieved by propellers. It is difficult but possible to get thrust from ether using certain method described further.

Unanswered or partially answered Problems in present Physics:

There are many areas in Physics which are not clearly explained.

1.      How do we explain the origin of magnetism?

2.      Why magnetic poles cannot be separated like positive and negative charges (non-existence of monopole)?

3.      Why does a moving charge generate a circular magnetic field?

4.      How do we explain the origin of Gravitation? Why it is so weak compared to Electrostatic Force?  Why it is only attractive and not repulsive?

5.      Where is the Gravitational Potential Energy stored as a result of work done in sending an object in deep space?

6.      What is the link between magnetism, Gravitation and Inertia?

7.      Why the precession motion exists in gyroscope?

If we don’t accept the new concepts, then it is much more difficult to address the above listed problems. By accepting them, we have answers of many mysteries and further investigation may be easier.

Dream a DC motor in 16th century. Assume that necessary technology is good, all necessary materials, natural earth magnets, alloys are available. The material includes copper, iron, aluminum for housing, graphite for carbon brushes, insulating materials, permanent magnets etc.

Assume that the science of static electricity, batteries, lamps are known but the laws of magnetic force and magnetic induction are unknown.

Visualize how someone can make a DC motor or DC generator. It will look almost impossible to make a motor or generator. Therefore, correct laws or fundamentals are essential to develop new method of Thrust Generation in space without using reaction mass.

 

Laws of Ether Mechanics:

1      All universe and empty space is filled with a different category of matter named as ether (M4). The ether (M4) is transparent for other forms of matter, viz. Solid (M1), Liquid (M2) & Gas (M3). There is huge empty space inside normal matters in the orbits of atom and in the inter-atomic spacing. The space occupied even by high density solid is below one part in 109, rest space is empty and filled by ether.  

2      Ether is a media for EM wave propagation. The EM waves propagate transversely in ether.

3      Ether can flow like other fluids, and some laws of Fluid Mechanics are applicable on ether. Magnetic flux is flow of Ether (supported by ‘The Laser Drift Experiment’).

4      Inertia is the property generated by magnetic induction due to acceleration and retardation in matter. Ether is associated with the objects and moves or drags as the object moves. However, there is a relative motion between the object and its associated ether during acceleration or deceleration process, which is responsible for inertia (supported by ‘The Stone Impact Experiment’).

5      Velocity of Transverse wave propagation in ether is equivalent to the speed of light. This shows that ether has very low density and very high elasticity (bulk modulus).  

6 Gravitational force is generated by motion of charge in matter. It is resultant force of the electrostatic force vector and magnetic force vector between atoms. Gravitational field is a form of complex magnetic induction, which synchronizes motion of electrons in other matter and generates force of attraction.

7 Ether can contain huge energy in the form of flow and vibrations. A combination of magnetic flux, velocity, and vibration in ether can generate force in space by taking reaction from ether. This force is similar to gravitational force.

8 The relative motion between object and its associated ether requires both acceleration and displacement in the same direction which is applicable in linear motion. A rotary motion has centrifugal acceleration in radial direction, but there is no displacement in that direction. Therefore, the ether associated with object does not leak in constant speed rotary motion. However, the inertia property is applicable while applying angular acceleration as both angular acceleration and angular displacement are present at that time and ether leaks during angular acceleration.

9 Turning a spinning wheel to 180 deg by precession motion in any of the remaining 2 direction requires torque for sufficient duration which is exactly equal to the torque and duration in the spin axis required to achieve the same speed in reverse direction. Therefore the ether leaks in presence of both precession motion and spin motion of a gyro / spin wheel.

10 The leaking ether during combined spinning and precession motion contains significant energy and flow of this ether is attenuated while passing through insulators, reflected from conductive paramagnetic metals and absorbed in the ferromagnetic material.

 

 

Existence of Ether: 

Assume that ether is like a fluid and EM waves are transverse wave propagation in ether, .then ether should also follow the equation of mechanical waves in any fluid.

The speed of all mechanical waves in any fluid follows an expression of the general form

v=  ( elastic property / inertial property )

Velocity of wave propagation in fluid  v=  ( Y/r)   m/s

Velocity of light or EM waves   c=  (1/ 0ε0))      m/s

 

This correlates that µ0  is analogous to density (r), and 1/e0 is analogous to elastic property Y. The capacitor is analogous to spring of a spring mass system while inductor is analogues to mass. The e0 is permittivity used for capacitance while µ0 is permeability used for magnetic circuits. 

This symmetry in equation of wave speed clearly proves that light or EM wave propagate in a fluid which is ether. Also, e0 is related to elastic property while u0 is related to density of ether.

            Unit of permittivity e0              farad / meter  =  m-3. kg-1. s4. A2

Unit of permeability µ0           henry /meter    = m . kg . s-2. A-2

            Replace current A by C . s-1   Coulomb /sec

            Then                    e0 =  m-3. kg-1. s2. C2

                        or         1/e0 =  m3. kg . s-2. C-2

                        also         µ0  =  m . kg . C-2

Density of ether                      r = (k u0) (m4/C2)        kg/m3    ,

      

Bulk modulus of ether            Y= (k / e0) (m4/C2)       kg/m . s2   { or  N/m2 }

Where k is a factor for conversion of units

It shows that if the unit of charge C is replaced by m2 than units are matched.  It is known that charge is spread over a surface which proves that charge ‘C’ has built in m2 dimensions.

 

Some Parameters of Ether are described as under.

Wave velocity in ether:  “c”    3x108   m/s  { 331 in air, 1400 in water }

Magnetic Flux:            1 gauss  is approximately equal to 5 m/s drift velocity of ether

Elastic Property:  {Bulk Modulus} “1/e0” 2.7 x 1012  N/m

{ 2.1 x 109 in Water,  16 x 1010 in steel }

Density                                    “m0”  3 x 10-5  Kg/m3  { 1.29 in air, 1000 in water }

Viscosity of ether                    almost zero

Note: the values of density and bulk modulus of ether are very approximate and need further investigation.

Comparison of essential parameters in different fluids

 

Ether

Air

Water

Unit

r

3 x 10-5

1.2

103

Kg/m3

Y

2.7 x 1013

1.4 x 105

.2 x 1010

N/m2

Velocity

3 x 108

330

1.4 x 103

 m/s

 

Material

r

Y

v

Coefficient of h (Viscosity)

Iron

7.5 x 103

20 x 1010

5130

 

Aluminum

2.7 x 103

7 x 1010

5100

 

Water

103

2.1 x 109

1493

1.0 x 10-3

Air 200 C

1.29

 

343

1.8 x 10-5

Air 00 C

 

1.4 x 103

331

 

Ether

3 x 10-5 

K m0

2.7 x 1012

K/e0

3 x 108

 

Zero, Negligible

Damping

 

Kg/m3

N/m2

m/s

N.s/m2

 

Magnetism:

Magnetism has close relation with ether because magnetism is flow of ether.

A moving charge interacts with ether and generates torque on ether which is magnetic field. This torque initiates and maintains flow of ether, which is magnet flux Ф.

 

The magnetic poles cannot be separated from each other as they are regions of pressure gradient in ether. Continuous flow of Electric current requires complete loop. Similarly, the magnetic flux always completes loop and magnetic poles can not be separated. This property is sufficient to explain that magnetism contains flow, as continuous flow requires close path.

 

Maxwell equation also explains that net magnetic flux through any closed surface is always zero (Non-existence of magnetic monopole). 

                        ňB . dA = 0  ,  Non-existence of magnetic monopole

A similar equation in electric circuit can be written as    ň j . dA = 0 

More precise equation is   ň ň j . dA .dt = 0  ,  Non-existence of electric current monopole

In case of electric flux, it is not zero and electric charge can be separated. Therefore electric flux is really a field, but magnetic flux is a flow, which should be considered as magnetic current.  

 

The correct terminology for magnetic parameters are given below

Parameters                 Electricity                   Magnetism

 

 

Current                        Electric Current           Magnetic Current

Current                        I  Ampere                    Ф Weber

Current Density          j  Amp/m2                   B Weber/m2

Voltage                       V Volt                         H AT/m

Conductor                   All metals                    Ferromagnetic Materials

Insulator                      Non-metals                  Diamagnetic materials

Current is                    Flow of charge            Flow of ether

 

 

H is the magnetic voltage, which is a parameter of that torque on ether and it can be considered as Magnetic field. B is the consequence of H. It depends upon H, permeability µ0 and also on path resistance. Therefore, Magnetic Current is more appropriate name for B instead of Magnetic Field or flux.

 

Ether and Inertia

 

When a body moves at a velocity v, some percentage of ether (M4) also flows with the same velocity in the same direction.

 

 

 

 

 

 


When an object moves with a velocity it makes ether (M4) flow, but not all the ether covering the volume of the body moves with that velocity, only a certain percentage flows. This depends upon thickness and density of object. Whenever velocity changes, acceleration occurs, the moving M4 with the object leaks from one direction which contains significant energy in the form of magnetic moment of orbital and spinning electron. New ether of almost zero energy fills that space from other side of object and regains energy. This energy transfer is the magnetic induction at atomic scale and is responsible for inertia.

The ether coming out from the object contains significant energy in from of flow at atomic scale due to magnetic moment of orbital electrons, while the ether incoming the object to fill the gap contains no energy. Therefore, outgoing ether releases its energy in surrounding ether, while the incoming ether regains energy. This energy transfer is responsible for inertia, which is based on eddy-current damping at atomic scale due to magnetic induction.

 

Ether and rotary motion

The relative motion between object and its associated ether requires both acceleration and displacement in the same direction which is applicable in linear motion. A rotary motion has centrifugal acceleration in radial direction, but there is no displacement in that direction. Therefore, the ether associated with object does not leak in constant speed rotary motion. However, the inertia property is applicable while applying angular acceleration as both angular acceleration and angular displacement are present at that time and ether leaks during angular acceleration.

Turning a spinning wheel to 180 deg by precession motion in any of the remaining 2 direction requires torque for sufficient duration which is exactly equal to the torque and duration in the spin axis required to achieve the same speed in reverse direction. Therefore the ether leaks in presence of both precession motion and spin motion of a gyro / spin wheel.

To explain further, assume a wheel is spinning at +Ws in x axis in CCW direction and it is rotated at constant speed in z axis by 180 deg so that spin wheel appears again in x axis in CW direction. It generates precession torque which can be resolved in x and y axes. It shows profile of Sine(θ) and Cos(θ) in x and y axes respectively where θ is the angle between spin axis and x axis.  The integration of product of torque component and duration in y axis is zero while it has non-zero value in the x axis and this value is exactly equal to the product of torque and duration required to achieve –Ws from +Ws in x axis.

This explains either we rotate the spin wheel by 180 deg or we reverse the speed of the spin wheel, both requires same product of torque and duration. It confirms the law of conservation of angular momentum. It also explains that a spin wheel maintains absolute direction in space.

The leaking ether during combined spinning and precession motion contains significant energy and this ether is attenuated while passing through insulators, reflected from conductive paramagnetic metals and absorbed in the ferromagnetic material.

This is very important property and it is useful in thrust / torque generation in space.

 
The Laser Drift Experiment: [ March , April 2001]

 

A laser beam was shot on the screen and images were captured by camera with laser beam passing and not passing through the 2m long magnet.

Text Box: Image from Camera

 

As shown in figures, and it was found (by image subtraction) that the laser beam spot was drifted by approx. 0.1 mm. 

 

 

 

Mag_N_S – No_Mag      Mag_S_N – No_Mag    No_Mag1 – No_Mag2

Let us assume that magnetism is flow of ether and electro-magnetic waves are transverse wave propagation in ether. Then this experiment should show some drift in laser beam while passing through magnet. It is similar to crossing a river by a boat and we find some drift in crossing the river. This drift is dependent upon both speed of boat and water flow.

This experiment showed positive results. Light drifts along the magnetic current (in the same direction), which validates that Magnetism is flow of ether The velocity of Ether was computed as 16 Km/s (approx) for 3000 Gauss flux density considering 0.1 mm drift in 2 m long magnet. This gives an estimation that 1 gauss magnetic current density is approximately equivalent to 5 m/s drift velocity of ether. 

This drift velocity is further used to estimate the density of ether by equating energy stored in an inductor and energy in the form of magnetic current as fluid flow. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This also shows that only a part of the light shifts ( not 100 % ) because Magnetic Field is turbulent flow of M4 and it does not cover 100 % path of Laser Beam at 3000 Gauss Flux Density.

Pic1= (Pic46  +   Pic45INV) * 2

It is easily seen with the naked eye that the Laser  shifts towards the right. Thus you see more red on the right and more green on the left.

 

 

Pic2= (Pic47  +   Pic45INV) * 2 , It shows no shift as magnets are absent.

 

 

 

 

 

The Stone Impact Experiment: [ May , June 2001]

When the free falling stone impacts the wooden anvil, there is a voltage pulse induced in the coil.  The impact of the stone is a sudden deceleration. This causes leakage of ether associated with stone and generates instantaneous magnetic current loops, which induces the voltage pulse in the coil. This establishes a link between magnetism and inertia.


Ether associated with the object moves or drags with the object. However, there is a relative motion between the object and its associated ether during   acceleration   or   deceleration   process.


Text Box: Sync Pulse    Induced signal

 


The ether coming out from the object contains significant energy in from of flow at atomic scale due to magnetic moment of orbital electrons, while the ether incoming the object to fill the gap contains no energy. Therefore, outgoing ether releases its energy in surrounding ether, while the incoming ether regains energy. This energy transfer is responsible for inertia, which is based on eddy-current damping at atomic scale due to magnetic induction.

The setup and more results are described here. A hard plastic pipe 9.45 metres (31 feet) long  was mounted well with supports. The pipe ended just around a feet above the wooden core approximately. A coil connected via an amplifier to the second channel of a two channel Digital Scope. This coil is placed on a sponge disc on the ground to isolate vibrations. This coil has a larger diameter than the pipe to provide sufficient clearance during the stone impact. A wooden cylinder is placed at the center of the coil which acts as an anvil  so that the stone impacts upon the wood. An optical sensor is connected to Channel 1 of the Digital Scope. The sensor is placed  above the coil to deliver a  Synchronizing pulse (SYNC) for the scope.   A stone is dropped  from the top of the pipe. The stone has a smaller diameter than the pipe so that it does not interfere or drag against the inner walls of the pipe. Before striking the wooden anvil, the stone first crosses the optical sensor giving SYNC and then impacts the anvil within the coil area. The impact of the stone generates high retardation and a signal is induced in the coil.

The experiment has been conducted to validate whether the induced   signal is related to the impact or is the induced signal zero. If the signal is not zero, this indicates that an EMF has been induced in the coil by applying high acceleration/ retardation of an object (stone). It was observed that an EMF has been induced in the coil and  the induced signal has been displayed on the Channel 2 of the Scope. Each picture shows the SYNC pulse from the Optical Sensor when the stone passes it and a signal on Channel 2 after striking the anvil within the coil.

 

Gravitation:

Consider two Hydrogen atoms placed at distance d. The electro-static force between both atoms is resultant of F1, F2, F3 and F4. However, this computation requires at least 100 digit precision as two forces are positive and two are negative, which makes resultant force very small. This is reason that gravitational force is very small (10-36 times approx) compare to electrostatic force.

 

The resultant electrostatic force

                                     Fe = F3 + F4 - F1 - F2

 

This resultant force Fe is the electric force vector of Gravitational force.

The force F1 is negative force which is constant at distance d is minimum, while remaining 3 forces are higher as these contain ripples. It can be proved that RMS is always greater than or equal to average. Therefore, the resultant force Fe can not be zero.

Similarly a resultant force Fm can be estimated which is the magnetic force vector of Gravitational force.

Then, Gravitational Force       Fg = Fe + Fm

 

The probability of finding an electron in spherical co-ordinates is non-uniform and changes significantly with distance due to magnetic induction and synchronization, which effects the resultant force Fg. The magnetic induction generated by one object can effect synchronization of the other object. When the distance between two objects is small, the effect of synchronization is higher due to the magnetic induction, which makes non-uniform probability of electrons in orbit. The result is reduction in kinetic energy and energy of magnetic moment of orbital electrons in the objects. This decrease in energy is the change in Gravitational Potential Energy. The coupling between two objects is complex magnetic induction, which is Gravitational field. This complex magnetic induction is inversely proportional to distance between objects. Therefore, the effect of this induction is lower at higher distances, probability of electrons in orbit is more uniform, and energy of orbital electrons is higher which is a measure of gravitational potential energy. Increase in energy of orbital electron also increases energy in the form of ether associated with the object as the energy of magnetic moment of electron is stored in the form of flow of ether at atomic level.

 

Similarity between Electricity, Magnetism and Gravitation:

Electricity, magnetism and gravitation have certain similarity. In electricity, we consider electric field “E” and electric current “I”. Electric voltage “V” and electric current density ” j ” can be derived from E and I. Similarly, in magnetism, we have two parameters “H” and “Ф”, which are magnetic voltage and magnetic current. Magnetic field and magnetic current density “B” can be derived from H and Ф. Similarly we have gravitation field “g”. An object or fluid moving due to the gravitation filed can be considered as a current induced due to gravity. One example is water flow in a river at constant velocity. This flow is initiated due to gravitation field and then attains constant velocity due to viscosity and friction.  This explains that both field and flow are applicable in electricity, magnetism and gravitation.

 

Field has no meaning unless it can apply force on some particle or matter. Electric field can apply force on charged particles like electron and proton. Gravitational field applies force on all bodies. Similarly, magnetic field applies force or torque on ether.

 

For work done or energy, it is essential to have both force and displacement. In case of electrical energy, the charge particle experience force and moves. In gravitational energy, the objects experience force and move or flow. Similarly, in magnetic energy, ether experiences force or torque and flows.

Advantages with existence of Ether

Let us summarize the advantage of assuming the existence of ether and magnetism as flow of ether.

(i)  It does not violet any existing law, phenomena or experimental result of the existing Physics.

(ii) It explains the reason of symmetry in equation of wave velocity of fluid and that of light.

(iii) It explains why magnetic monopole does not exist.

(iv) It explains that object can travel faster than light if accelerated quickly to cross that barrier of speed of light.

(v) It explains the link between magnetism and inertia.

(vi) It opens new possibilities for generating thrust and torque in space without using reaction mass by taking reaction from ether.

Prototype / Apparatus (D10P4)

The scope of this prototype is to generate sufficient continuous thrust or torque in space from electric power, without using reaction mass. Major application of this apparatus is to control attitude (orientation) of satellite or space vehicles. It does not have limitations of momentum wheels or fuel based small thrusters which is the popular method used presently. This apparatus can be further engineered to generate sufficient thrust in space from electric power.

It is necessary to correct the orientation / attitude of satellites at regular interval due to certain drifts. Present technique use momentum wheels to orient the satellites. However, once the speed of moment wheels reach at their limits, it is necessary to slow down the momentum wheel and compensate the torque by fuel based thrusters. It also uses small fuel based thrusters for precise positioning. There is no successful technique available to generate continuous thrust and torque from electric power.

The objective of this invention is to generate the Thrust and Torque in space at industrial / military / space temperature range from electric power and it can be used as a suitable product for space application. It utilizes newly invented theory by the inventor which is presently not available in the existing & accepted Physics. Therefore the functioning of this apparatus can not be explained using existing physics.

 

Development History

The development of prototype thrust generator was started in year 1997 and it consumed almost 12 years from 1997 to 2009 to reach at this stage.  Present prototype is named as D10P4 (design 10, prototype 4). Many designs were tried and some of the prototypes worked in past. All designs / prototypes were valuable in the development process. A summary of past designs is described here.

Design-1, Prototype P1 to P40: This design was based on a new developed component named capacito-inductor. Two prototypes worked successfully based on this design. A paper was published on this design in Possible Generation of Gravitational Force (ICGA-5) Oct-2001, Russian Gravitational Society.

Design-2:  This design was based on ether flow due to centrifugal force.

Design-3: It was based on static design (no rotating part) considering that ether can flow by combination of magnetic current and electric field in certain configuration. The design had some limitations.

Design-4:  This design was based on thin magnetic disk with vibration in disk by piezo excitation.

.Design-5:  This design was based on combination of gyration and current excitation.

Design-6:  This design was a modified version of the design-4.

Design-7: This design was based on magnetic disks and current excitation by thin PCB based coils.

Design-8: This design was based on cylinder & Disk. Magnet single-pole is fabricated on disk and another pole on cylinder. Similarly stator and rotor are made. Stator is outside with disk greater than cylinder. Rotor is inside with disk diameter less than that of cylinder. Pole is same on both cylinders of rotor & stator. So there is lot of repulsive force and flux bent. Air gap in 2 cylinders is approx 20 mm, rotor cylinder is 148 mm. So the bent flux had comfortable space on disk face. This offers shear force while rotating. Piezo excitation was used in the gap to get leaking ether.

Design-9: This design was similar to design-8, but 2.4 GHz microwave excitation was used using two antennas at lenda/4 spacing in the magnetic gap and the gap was designed as per dimensions of a wave guide.

Design-10: This is the present design. All the prototypes of this design are based on combination of spin and precession motion.

Prototype P1 was based on high spin and very slow precession motion which did not worked.

P2 was modified from P1 and was based on 2 gyro wheels but it was not engineered properly. It had significantly high air drag and poor reliability.

P3 was based on 6 gyros, 6 channel motor drive mounted on gyros and powered by slip rings. It also had many engineering limitations and was not good design to continue. However, it showed sometime positive results.

P4 is the prototype described earlier which contains gear mechanism to rotate gyro wheels. This eliminates rotating controls and slip rings thus offer good reliability.

 It was essential to have some theory before staring the development of the prototype. Therefore, theoretical work was started in 1977. The first clue was found in 1985 about origin of gravitation and method to generate force using capacito-inductor. However, the theory of ether was not clear at that time. It was year 1998 when the theory of ether was found. Then it took 3 years more and experiments were conducted in 2001. Then theoretical work was continued with prototype development and last clue about leaking of ether under combined spin and precession speed was concluded in 2008.

 

The above picture shows some of the prototypes of different designs.

 

Summary of papers submitted / presented with Physics societies

Papers with APS:

1.  June 05, 2000, AT7120,  Paper on “Gravity Generation (gravity motor)”, Rejected

2.  April 17, 2001, AD8064, Paper on “Generation of gravitational force”, Rejected

3.  May 18, 2001, AE8099,  Paper on “Origin of magnetism and Unification of Forces”, Rejected

4.  July 31, 2001, AG8137, Paper on “Link between magnetism and inertia”, Rejected

5.  August 20, 2002, DV8131, Paper on “New phenomena of magnetism: An experimental study'', Rejected

6.  Oct 19, 2005, AK10126, Paper on “New Possibilities in Magnetism'', Rejected

Paper with JPS:

Paper “Possible Generation of a Gravitational Force” was also submitted to Japan Physical Society on May 6, 2001 but almost after three months the paper was rejected by the JPS giving the reason that the paper is not having sufficient math so it can not be published.

Paper submitted and published at RGS:

 From May 2001 to Sep 2001 the author was continuously in touch with the RGS and tried for almost seven months at a stretch to get his paper “Possible Generation of a Gravitational Force” Published in there Journal “ Gravitation and Cosmology”. Talks were presented by the representative in the 5th international conference on Gravity and Astrophysics of Asian-Pacific countries scheduled for Oct 1-7, 2001 held in Moscow. On June 21st, 2001 the reduced and modified paper was sent back to RGS and finally the paper “Possible Generation of a Gravitational Force” was accepted and on Sep 27, 2002.